Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa - Online First: 2021-04-09
Coexisting sarcoidosis and systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report and literature review.
AbstractThe coexistence of sarcoidosis and SLE in the same patient has uncommonly been reported. Information on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management of this rare association is scarce. We report a 46-year-old Hispanic man who was recently diagnosed with concomitant SLE and sarcoidosis at our institution. A diagnosis of sarcoidosis was established due to the presence of dyspnea, fever, and malaise along with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy and histological evidence of non-caseating granuloma. In addition, he fulfilled the American Rheumatism Association (ACR) criteria for SLE due to a history of photosensitivity, polyarthritis, lymphocytopenia, and positivity of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies. He was successfully treated with a combination of oral glucocorticoids, hydroxychloroquine, and methotrexate. In a further step, we conducted an extensive literature review to further investigate into the association of sarcoidosis and SLE. We identified 25 additional published cases. The concurrence of these two conditions may be more common than previously reported, mainly affecting young female adults in the fourth decade of life. The most common manifestation of sarcoidosis was mild pulmonary symptoms whereas SLE presentation was highly variable. Most patients were positive for anti-dsDNA antibodies. Different therapeutic strategies included oral glucocorticoids, hydroxychloroquine, conventional immunosuppressive drugs and, cyclophosphamide in severe cases. Our study reinforces the need of considering the potential concurrence of sarcoidosis and SLE. Clinicians should be aware of the potential presence of SLE in patients with a diagnosis of sarcoidosis presenting with cutaneous manifestations, cytopenia, renal involvement, and/or positivity for ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies.